outside the CMC site
Photo by: Nezaket Dertsiz
In 1919 Seeley Wintersmith Mudd’s son Harwey Mudd also came to Cyprus
to make his own investigations. Leaving Cyprus with constructive ideas
Mudd went to Europe and started searching for a market. At the same time
Cooper ore that explored accumulated near by Pendaya village.
Apart from this CMC made some research in the
Southwest of Lefke,
called Karadag where they got good result.
In 1921 cooper ore explored and exported by CMC from Gemikonagi harbour
which was built with an idea of exporting Lemon products.
One of the most difficulties that CMC was facing with, that the two
communities had to celebrate their national and religion days were different
from one another. As a result of this it was a lost for the company in
In 1922 in the area of Focussa a place called Skuriotissa many houses
have been built for mining workers, which later attracted a high population
to the mining area.
In 1923 the studies for mining research have been intensified in
the area of Karadag.
In 1924, For CMC in order to export its ore product a harbour was
being built in the west of Pendaya. In the same year many Russians came
to Cyprus when the revolution took place in Russia. Among those Russians
were doctors, engineers and technicians. CMC grabbed the opportunity and
employed those Russians in different positions.
Later on CMC made a great afford to meet the medical needs of increased
working people because of an illness which was diagnosed as malaria , started
building a hospital in Pendaya. CMC also planted many eucalyptus in swamps
for protection from malaria.
In 1924 the number of the mining houses have been increasing in the
area of Skuriotissa and a canteen was built to meet the needs of workers.
Later on the same right of operating a canteen was given to some Turks
in Lefke. The idea was based on that the mining workers would be able to
do there shopping in those canteens either in cash or on credit. By doing
this CMC would be able to pay the salaries to employees through the operator
of canteen. Thus, until the pay day the workers what be able to shop and
what ever money was left after having paid for their shopping what be paid
back to them.
As CMC developed this system would be able to by of the properties
from the owners at a fairly low price in return of giving them the first privileges of operating the
canteen. Although in 1925-1926 many workers
went on strike against the present system that CMC was leading but nevertheless
the mentioned system continued until 1939.
In 1926 a new harbour on the factory were built.
Apart from that
a village was being built for workers between Pendaya and Gemikonagi.
Specially after 1926 was observed that CMC employed many more workers
and improved its capacity. Since then Lefke area has been attracting many
people various part of Cyprus specially from Paphos.
In 1928 a second village was being built for mining workers in the
area of Karadag. Moreover, CMC was giving the right of operating the canteens
to people who were originally from Lefke in return of buying some lands
from the people.
During this years CMC was facing big problems. One of this problems
as Malaria which was all over and many workers were suffering from this illness.
The second problem was when the harvest season when people had to live
their jobs for harvesting. Therefore the workers had not been able to make
a choice yet between the mining and agricultural involvement. Later on it
was revealed that mining sector was much more profitable than the agricultural
sector, which most of the workers decided to work in mining rather than
in agricultural sector. As an example; people who were engaged with agricultural
in Baglikoy transferred there profession to the mining sector. It is for
these reason that the vine-gardens died down it is also the same reason
which stopped the people from improving the condition of there orange gardens.
In 1930 a power plant which was being built near by
Xeros, has been expanded. The number of the power workers have been increased from 2595
to 5720, until1937.
In 1936 the dense of the population was high in Xero and Karadag
but in Lefke it was highest. At that time even the basement of houses were
renting to the workers. In the region some health problems occurred. In
accordance of population explosion. In the same years an illness called
Due to the high increased population some serious illnesses existing
among the people which was threatening the health. Therefore CMC proposed
the program which would implement to solve the social problems. As an example;
CMC built seven elementary school to educate children. A hospital was also
being built in Pendaya to solve health care. CMC was also providing some
nourishment for children schools either free or for a very little money.
In 1939-1945 when the second world war broke out CMC, partially cut
down its activities, and laid-off money workers. Later on CMC provided
two pounds for each worker so the workers world hang around the job. CMC
was also renting some agricultural land and using their workers for cultivation.
In 1942 422 worker house, and a little later on some other worker
houses in Karadag and Xero have been used by the English troops as a resting
camp in the mean time many Greek soldiers came to stay in these houses
as a quest.
In 1946 after the second world war had finished they started operating
Karadag mine. At that time many workers have been reemployed to their job.
Unfortunately in 1948 AKEL communist party organized the workers for a
strike which took nine months to end a strike. After the war CMC started
operating the mine and repaired the workers houses. In 1953 CMC a large
hospital in Pendaya and provided more medical services to the local people,
CMC also supported the football clubs in the area.
In 1957 CMC built the Lefke technical school by spending 50.000 English
pounds . In 1956-1958. The Greek Cypriots rebelled against the British
regime for establishing ENOSIS in the island. Since this was known by
CMC, it was an obvious thing that the Greeks and Turks could not work together in
the mining. So therefore CMC provided Karadag mining for Turkish workers,
where as in Foucassa only the Greek workers would be employed. In the same
years the Greek community in Lefke was unwanted by the Turkish community
which cause Greek Cypriots leaving Lefke. Since than the heterogenic structure
of population left its place for a homogenic structure which represented
by Turkish Cypriots. In 1960 Cyprus has gained its independency and the
country ruled by republic. Since that date both Greek and Turks started
working together. After the republic establish CMC started pain a certain
amount of many as a tax too the government of Cyprus which would contribute
to the budget of the country. In 1963 when the political conflict took
place in between the two communities CMC could not be able to function
its operation properly. This situation continued on until 1974, when the
two communities separated from one another CMC decided to close the Pant
down. The political unrest which started in 1960’s caused a separation
between the Turkish and Greek workers, which naturally had a negative effect
on CMC. Specially in 1963 when the fight started between the two communities
Greek Cypriots took over the whole government over by claiming that they
Are the only government of the island. Afterwards, CMC has been under the
pressure by the Greeks. Since than only Karadag mine happened to be in
the boundaries of Lefke which Turkish workers reemployed again, whereas
in the other places called Focussa and Xero, the Greek workers were reemployed.
In 1970 the copper ore was nearly finished in Karadag. For this reason
almost all the Turkish mining workers got laid-off.
As a result of systematic implication of the Greek Cypriots’ economical
ressure; has altered the social, economical and democratic structure
of Lefke. In July 1974 Cyprus Peace keeping operation took place which
Northern part of Cyprus has been ruled by the Turkish Federated state,
Karadag mining deposit remained in Turkish district in Xero a power plant
and the harbour also remained in Turkish district. On the country side
Focussa remained under the Greek rule.
As a consequence CMC could not be able to sustain its
being in between two different poles. Since CMC had no other alternatives
ended up by closing it down. Naturally this was followed by the high unemployment
and immigration to other countries.