of Iron Age in Cyprus
mass immigration of Greek-speaking peoples from the Peloponnese
began with the Iron Age (1100-700 BC). From the start of the 1st
millennium the Greek language has been dominant in Cyprus; the
fact that the dialectal form in which it first appears is known
as Arcado-Cypriot confirms traditions of the Peloponnesian
origin--and specifically of the Arcadian origin--of the
founded new cities, which became the capitals of six ancient
kingdoms on Cyprus: Curium (Greek Kourion), Paphos, Marion, Soli
(Greek Soloi), Lapithos, and Salamis.
about 800 BC a Phoenician colony was founded at Citium (Greek
Kition), near modern Larnaca. The colony was a dependency of the
mother city, Tyre.
seventh kingdom, that of Amathus, remained for some time under
the control of the earlier indigenous inhabitants; the language
used there was called Eteo-Cypriot ("True
Cypriot") by the Greeks. Amathus was active politically,
especially in external trade relations.
later Iron Age was a period of advancing civilization, as
evidenced by the spectacular chariot-burials of the royal family
of Salamis, which so closely match descriptions in the Homeric
poems as to suggest inspiration by them.